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ANGLE

GRID REFERENCE: SM 862027
AREA IN HECTARES: 290

Historic Background
This character area lies at the western tip of the south Pembrokeshire peninsula and comprises Angle village and its associated field system. It lies within the parish of Angle, which is probably coterminous with the medieval Manor of Angle. Angle is a planned village of probable post-conquest date, presumably closely contemporary with the establishment of the manor c.1100. The main street appears to have been a primary feature. A planned row, still represented by straight co-axial field boundaries north of the main street, is possibly of two phases but the initial phase is probably immediately post Anglo-Norman conquest in date. Boundaries to the south of the main street may preserve the pattern of earlier open fields. This type of regular row settlement can be found elsewhere in Pembrokeshire. The southern edge of this field system is defined by a prehistoric trackway, known as ‘The Ridgeway’, that follows the main east-west ridge across south Pembrokeshire. The northern edge of the field system is defined by steep sea-cliffs. The medieval Manor of Angle was a mesne lordship of the Lordship of Pembroke representing 2 knights’ fees. It formed part of the de Clare share of the Lordship of Pembroke when it was partitioned in 1247, but in matters of administration remained subject to Pembroke. The 14th century manor comprised 2½ carucates of land. During the later medieval period, it appears to have been subdivided into two manors, ‘Angle’ and ‘Hall in Angle’. In c.1600 Angle itself was under the tenure of one Walter Rees, while Hall formed part of the extensive Perrott holdings. By 1613 the entire holding was in the hands of the Earl of Essex. Ultimately Angle came to lie within the extensive Cawdor Estate under the Campbells of Castlemartin manor. In 1805, the estate was acquired by John Mirehouse of Brownslade. Angle was further divided into an area of ecclesiastical land-ownership. Angle church had been appropriated to the Benedictine Priory at Monkton, Pembroke, The living was both a rectory and a vicarage. In 1175-76, Giraldus Cambrensis was Rector of Angle. So there were at least three high-status occupants within the manor that breaks up into three corresponding parts. The church and rectorial glebeland lie to the north of the main road, and feature a late-medieval tower-house and dovecote. ‘The Castle’, a late-medieval administrative hall-house south of the road appears to represent the caput of the Lord of the Manor of Angle. The Hall, to the east, is secondary and may well be on the same site as the centre of the ‘Hall place in Angle’ of c.1600. It remains inhabited to this day. North Studdock and Hubberton are post-medieval farms partly established over the former open fields. There has since been some limited conifer planting for game-cover and windbreaks. The area has remained primarily agricultural and the tithe map of 1842 shows the village and enclosed strip fields very much as today. However, the area occupies a strategic location and a cliff-top fort, Chapel Bay Fort, which was built on land acquired in 1861 by the War Department, defended the Haven. Most of the fort dates to the 1890s, but, development continued up to World War 1. The site was sold in 1932 and has since become derelict. In the north of the area a 16th century windmill has long formed a prominent landscape feature. During World War 2, the windmill was converted into a defence-post, accompanied by a Battle HQ, associated with the military airfield to the south of this area. Three successive lifeboat stations, with slipways, from 1868 onwards, are also prominent coastal landscape features.

Base map reproduced from the OS map with the permission of Ordnance Survey on behalf of The Controller of Her Majesty's Stationery Office, Crown Copyright 2001.
All rights reserved. Unauthorised reproduction infringes Crown Copyright and may lead to prosecution or civil proceedings. Licence Number: GD272221

 

Description and essential historic landscape components
Angle historic landscape character area lies along the floor and sides of an open valley that at its western end terminates at the exposed beach and sea cliffs of West Angle Bay and at its eastern end runs into the marsh and mud flats of the sheltered Angle Bay. The valley floor is only a few metres above sea level, but the sides rise gently to over 50m. Angle is a linear village, with most houses facing the road that runs along the valley floor, with a loose clustering of houses at the eastern end at Angle Bay. There are 25 listed buildings. Older buildings, including the medieval parish church of St Mary with its churchyard chapel, the ‘Castle’ - a ruined late medieval hall-house - a tower-house and a dovecote, are grouped towards the eastern end of the village. Nineteenth century and early 20th century domestic architecture is predominantly in the Georgian tradition, with eaves parapets on many of the houses lending a distinctive architectural signature to the village. Several vernacular single storey cottages are also present. Cement rendered stone is probably the chief building material, although at least one 19th century house is of painted brick. Twentieth century houses in a variety of styles and materials, of one and two storeys, are interspersed with, and blend in well with the older dwellings. The Hall set in gardens lies just beyond the fringes of the village, as does The Old Point House (a late 19th century vernacular building), the old and new lifeboat station, and the old brickworks and a stone-built windmill tower converted to a machine gun post. Chapel Bay Fort, the last of the large forts designed to protect the Milford Haven waterway was in use until after World War 1, and lies on the cliff-tops on the northern fringes of this area. Cottages built to serve the fort in about 1900 are located close by. A couple of farms and houses are dispersed across the landscape. There are few formal quays or other maritime structures, apart from small jetties at Angle Bay and a slipway old quarries and mooring points at West Angle. A car park and a small caravan/camping site at West Angle serve the leisure and tourism industry. The Pembrokeshire Coast Path runs around the fringes of this area. Outside the village this is still an agricultural landscape. The long narrow fields that run up valley sides from the village are enclosed strips of the former communities medieval open field system. Banks topped with hedges are the main boundary type, although occasional mortared walls are present. Hedges are generally in a good condition. Deciduous woodland on the southern valley side and on the steep coastal slopes is an important component of the landscape. Most of the archaeological sites are connected with the massive Chapel Bay Fort and include searchlight batteries, gun emplacements, lookout posts and other installations. Other sites include limekilns, medieval chapel sites and prehistoric flintworking floors.

Angle is a distinct historic landscape character area and is clearly defined on three sides by the sea. On the other side boundary definition is obviously less good, but nevertheless is reasonably clear although not hard-edged.

Sources: Angle parish tithe map 1842; Charles 1992; Howells 1993; James 2000; Kissock 1993; Kissock 1995; Ludlow 1997a: Ludlow 1997b; Owen 1918; Page and Scott 1998; PRO D/EE/7/338

 

 

 

 

 

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